Carbon filtering is a method of water purification that uses a piece of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, utilizing chemical adsorption. Each piece of carbon is designed to provide a large section of surface area, in order to allow contaminants the most possible exposure to the filter media. One pound of carbon contains a surface area of approximately 500.000 mē (125 acres). This carbon is generally activated with a positive charge and is designed to attract negatively charged water contaminants.
Carbon filters are most effective at removing chlorine, sediment, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water. They are not generally effective at removing minerals, salts, and dissolved inorganic compounds.
Typical particle sizes that can be removed by carbon filtres range from 0.5 to 50 micrometres (microns). The particle size will be used as part of the filter description. The efficacy of a carbon filter is also based upon the flow rate regulation. The slower water is able to flow through the filter, the more contaminants are exposed to the filter media.